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The role of social media in crisis communication management.

This synthesis paper should utilize the following Annotated Bibliography for Synthesis Paper  Topic  The role of social media in crisis communication management. Mustafa,  E., Murat C., Necati E., (2016:) The Role of Social Media in Crisis Communication and Crisis Management. International Journal of Research in Business & Social Science 5(3), 2016: 111-120 The authors, two lecturers and a graduate student of Istanbul Commerce University, Istanbul, Turkey  explore how businesses can manage communication to avert losses during a time of crisis. They conclude that communication management is the most important element of crisis management, and, due to the collective consciousness created by consumers on social media, companies can no longer ignore the use of social media to manage a crisis. They affirm that the most important behavior businesses must adopt in case of a crisis, is communicating with consumers through the fastest and the most appropriate channel. They conclude that social media is an environment where disinformation occurs often and thus quickly responding to consumers on social media, efficiency and correctly, prevents disinformation.  Mats Eriksson (2018) Lessons for Crisis Communication on Social Media: A Systematic Review of What Research Tells the Practice, International Journal of Strategic Communication, 12:5, 526-551, DOI: 10.1080/1553118X.2018.1510405 The author, a Media and Communication Studies researcher at Örebro University in Sweden analyzes explicit pieces of advice for effective social media crisis communication given by researchers in various subdisciplines of strategic communication, precisely 104 peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers published between 2004 and 2017. The study concludes that effective crisis communication is about using social media’s potential to create dialogue and to choose the right message, source and timing; performing pre-crisis work and developing an understanding of social media logic; using social media monitoring; and continuing to prioritize traditional media in crisis situations. Additionally, effective crisis communication is also about just using social media in its own right during crises.  Yang Cheng (2016) How Social Media Is Changing Crisis Communication Strategies: Evidence from the Updated Literature, Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management  The author, a researcher from Missouri School of Journalism in Columbia (USA) presents a comprehensive review of 73 articles focusing on the social-mediated crisis management (SMCM) published in 11 journals listed in the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI).  The study challenges traditional theories of crisis communication management, and proposes  an interactive crisis communication (ICC) model as a future agenda for research. The ICC model proposes an integrated strategy toolkit that generates five main crisis responses (base, denial, evasion, justification and concession) and 28 strategies (e.g., attacking the accuser, denial, ignore, scapegoat, excuse, provocation, defeasibility, accidental, good intentions, stealing thunder, compensation and apology) across the crisis phases. The ICC model adds new strategies such as enhancing, transferring, manipulation and covering up (not recommended), and divergence from the SMCM research, which were not covered by traditional crisis communication theories.  Christian R., Amanda L., Marc-André K., (2018): Social Media in Crisis Management: An Evaluation and Analysis of Crisis Informatics Research, International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, DOI: 10.1080/10447318.2018.1427832 The authors, researchers from Technische Universität Darmstadt, Science and Technology for Peace and Security (PEASEC) in Darmstadt (Germany) and Computer Science Department, Utah State University in Logan, (USA) evaluate and analyze crisis informatics research by looking at case studies of social media use in emergencies, outlining the types of research found in crisis informatics, and expounding upon the forms of interaction that have been researched. The research paper focuses on the use of social media during many of the most significant emergency events to happen world-wide since 2001. The analysis concludes that interactions among authorities and citizens as well as interaction design and technology development have been and will continue to be challenged through the rapidly changing landscape of social media platforms.  Cheng Y. (2020). The social-mediated crisis communication research: Revisiting dialogue between organizations and publics in crises of China. Public relations review, 46(1), 101769. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2019.04.003 The author, a researcher at Department of Communication, North Carolina State University in Raleigh, (United States) conducts a content analysis of 61 relevant journal articles published in 2006–2018. The research explores how the unique Chinese social media characteristics affect the dialogue between types of organizations and their publics. Findings demonstrate the two sides of social media’s impact on dialogue between organizations and their publics in crises of China. On the one hand, social media may act as a mediator for rapid information trans-mission and promote transparent dialogue in crises. Chinese social media helps balance the organizational power as the “dominator” and the public power as the “challenger” in crises. On the other hand, social media serves as an open-platform to all types of users, so it is hard to control information due to the highly engaged dialogic interactions. The research concludes by acknowledging that messages online have the power of directing public opinion and can cause damage to an organization’s reputation.  Vignal L, and Barki E., (2018) Social Media Crisis Management: Aligning Corporate Response Strategies with Stakeholders’ Emotions Online. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, Vol. 26, Issue 2, pp. 295-305, 2018, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3188627 or http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-5973.12198 The authors analyse how stakeholders’ emotions online can help companies facing a social media crisis determine the response strategy that will best minimize the reputational threat. The article questions the relevance of classical crisis management theory to an online environment. Results show that social media have increased the unpredictability of corporate crises. Consequently, on social media, crises cannot be addressed with the methods that have prevailed so far. Rather, incorporating emotion‐based analysis in six case studies showed how crisis analysis, and the subsequent response strategy, could be fine‐tuned. In conclusion, the article builds on recent literature to develop a new analytical framework for response strategies and a model for crisis resolution—the social media crisis management matrix. Kristen M., Julie A., Nasia S., (2021), Crisis Communication and Public Perception of COVID-19 Risk in the Era of Social Media, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 72, Issue 4, Pages 697–702, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa758 The authors, researchers from the Department of Population Health Sciences, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (USA) and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin (USA) and the Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (USA) identify a number of important principles in effective risk communication.  Hazard and outrage along with cultural and economic context shape adherence to, and overall acceptance of, personal mitigation strategies including wearing facemasks and social distancing among the general public. The paper notes that the spread of misinformation on social media also provides both challenges and opportunities for clinicians. Social media offers an opportunity for experts to quickly convey true information about hazards, but offers others the opportunity to counter this with the spread of misinformation and exacerbate outrage. The paper concluded by providing strategies for infectious diseases clinicians to apply risk communication principles and frameworks to improve patient care and public message development in response to COVID-19. Ruggiero, A., & Vos, M. (2014). Social Media Monitoring for Crisis Communication : Process, Methods and Trends in Scientific Literature. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 4 (1), 105-130. Retrieved from  http://www.ojcmt.net/download/social-media-monitoring-for-crisis-communication-process-methods-and-trends-in-the-scientific.pdf The authors, researchers at University of Jyväskylä (Finland) shed light on how fast developing social media discourse can be followed and analysed in order to understand citizens’ needs throughout all the phases of a crisis. Covering the years 2009–2012, findings from the research demonstrate a number of insights in the scientific literature on the concept of monitoring, the monitoring process, methods, tools and solutions, methodological issues and trends.  The paper defines social media monitoring as a process which comprises various steps: preparation, data collection, data analysis and reporting. The paper discusses methodological issues and many challenges still to be addressed, and gaps to be filled in future studies. Matthew C., Karen N., William H., Martina M., (2016) Communication in a disaster – the development of a crisis communication tool within the S-HELP project, Journal of Decision Systems, 25:sup1, 160-170, DOI: 10.1080/12460125.2016.1187392 The authors, researchers at Future Analytics Consulting at the University College Cork (USA) acknowledge that social media as the most efficient method of delivering emergency response messages in a contemporary urban crisis scenario. In the immediate aftermath of an event, valuable spatially- related information can often be difficult to pinpoint in the melee of unhelpful or speculative social media ‘noise’. The paper explores the increasing need to be first, right and credible in the midst of unverified, speculative reports. The paper concludes that through the use of communication methods, emergency responders can rapidly understand the scope of a crisis situation and deliver appropriate messages to stakeholders which can be adapted according to developments in the situation.