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Intellectual property

Please answer the following.   7.1 Technological, economic and communication changes are occurring so rapidly that culture and social systems are not able to keep up, much less apply moral and ethical standards to the evolving systems. How can the treaties and conventions anticipate and deal with these ethical challenges? 7.2  The internet is making significant bodies of knowledge available. Is it likely that this body of shared knowledge will enable many to arrive at the same solution to identified problems, thus making monopolies inappropriate? Is it likely that this shared body of knowledge may lead to a situation in which patents and copyrights have a chilling effect upon the innovation system rather than enabling it? 7.3  The World Trade Organization has begun to ask whether it is time to find a new balance between private rights (incentives to create) and public interest (ability to use or access the creations). They have also identified the need for a balance between the short term interests and the long term interests. Long terms interests consider the benefits derived from creations and inventions. This requires analysis of the time period for the intellectual property protection or monopoly period. The short term considerations include the incentives given to creators and inventors to invest their efforts in securing innovations. Where should we strike the balance and how do we make it happen? 7.4 There are humanitarian concerns that generic medicines should be made available to countries that cannot produce the medicines themselves. The question is how should that be funded and will it erode the strength of a patented medication?