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Assignment Details Cell Biology The discovery of the antibiotic Penicillin in the 1920s made a big impact on human history. Not only did it provide a cure for bacterial infections that were once deadly, but it also led to a golden age in discovery of new antibiotics. The great benefit of these drugs is that antibiotics inhibit the growth of bacterial cells or kill them outright, and yet, on the whole, do not harm eukaryotic cells. Answer BOTH of the following questions: Given the following list of antibiotics and their targets, explain how each stops bacteria without harming human cells. Base your analyses on the differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Considering the targets of these antibiotics, explain why antibiotics in general would not be useful for treating a viral infection. Antibiotic Target Penicillin Blocks cell wall synthesis Tetracycline Blocks protein synthesis by binding to the 30S Unit of the ribosome Chloramphenicol Blocks protein synthesis by binding to the 50S Unit of the ribosome Sulfonamides Inhibit folic acid synthesis Vancomycin Blocks cross-linking of the peptidoglycan in the cell wall Read this to enhance your understanding of the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells: How do antibiotics kill bacterial cells but not human cells? See a comparison of bacterial and viral features here: Differences between bacteria and viruses.